More Warnings Needed on Reglan Side Effects

Although a black box warning for tardive dyskinesia was announced by the FDA in February 2009, lawsuits filed against the makers of Reglan (metoclopramide) allege the drug companies knew for decades that the risk of movement disorders was much greater than acknowledged in previous labels.

According to an expert witness report filed in a Georgia lawsuit by Dr Robert Nelson, a former 20-year employee of the FDA and National Institute of Health, “the 1/500 EPS labeling was inaccurate and misleading from the moment the oral dosage form was approved.”

In citing a 2008 study on the causes of TD at a university-based movement disorder clinic, Nelson reports that from 2000-2006, metoclopramide induced TD “was more common than any other cause, accounting for 34.5%” of all cases, or 87 out of 250.

Reglan is approved only for the short term treatment (12 weeks max) of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), in adults who have not responded to other therapies, and for diabetic gastroparesis, for two to 8 weeks.

In the February 2009, letters notifying the drug makers of a need for a black box, the FDA stated, “we have become aware of continued spontaneous reports to the FDA of tardive dyskinesia associated with metoclopramide use. Exposure greater than 12 weeks was evident in a majority of these reports.”

In fact, a telephone survey conducted, by then Reglan maker (AH Robins), back in 1985, “found that 38% of Reglan users took the drug for between one and two years and another 46% of Reglan users took the drug for three to six months,” Dr Bob West, a pharmacologist and toxicoligist, says in a report filed in a Louisiana lawsuit.

Devastating Disorder

Tardive dyskinesia is one of the most devastating of all drug-induced movement disorders, according to Dr Peter Breggin, author of about twenty books, including “Medication Madness.”

“The abnormal movements or spasms can strike any of the muscles that are under voluntary control, including muscles of the face, eyes, mouth, tongue, neck, shoulders, arms, legs, hands, and feet,” he says. “Breathing, speaking, and swallowing can also be impaired.”

“Tardive dyskinesia often looks so “strange” or “bizarre” that it is mistaken for a mental illness rather than a neurological disorder,” he notes.

Reglan can also cause uncontrolled muscle spasms (dystonia), Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, Parkinsonism, depression, thoughts of suicide, and suicide. Common side effects include feeling restless, sleepy, tired, dizzy, or exhausted, headache, confusion, and trouble sleeping, according to a June 9, 2009, FDA approved medication guide.

Pregnant Women Targeted

Four months after the black box for TD was announced, a New England Journal of Medicine study claimed that Reglan was safe for pregnant women with morning sickness.

The news of the study was sent out to all the media outlets and a massive off-label marketing campaign followed to promote the sale of Reglan to pregnant women, with journalists publishing almost identical talking points.

Reporter, Linda Johnson, put out articles through the Associated Press newswire which resulted in headlines such as, “Study Suggests Drug Is Safe For Morning Sickness,” popping up all over the internet and for major media stories for a couple weeks.

For instance, in a June 10, 2009, article that appeared in USA Today, on Fox and ABC news Websites, and even in the UK’s Guardian on June 12, 2009, Johnson wrote: “For the first time, a large study shows that pregnant women who suffer morning sickness are not risking harm to their babies if they take a certain anti-nausea drug.”

“The result may lead more doctors to prescribe the drug metoclopramide and women to feel less guilty about using it during their baby’s crucial first few months of development, experts said,” she reported. Johnson never mentioned the black box for TD in her articles.

The June 10, headline for the same article on the MSNBC Website read: “Morning sickness drug shown safe for babies.” On June 11, a Johnson article appeared in the Boston Globe and the same story was in the Durango Herald News as late as June 22.

To begin with, running headlines claiming that Reglan is safe based on the NEJM study was misleading and irresponsible because the majority of women, 2,502 out of 3,458, only took Reglan for 7 days, or less, in the first trimester. The average duration of fetal exposure was about a week. Only 164 took the drug for 22 days or more. Plus, the study only looked at harm at birth with no later follow-up on the babies.

There was no mention in the actual study of the black box for TD, or any other adverse effects, that could harm the mom or the fetus. Yet, the Los Angeles Times ran a June 10, story with claims that the “first study of the anti-nausea drug metoclopramide in pregnant women has found that it is safe for both fetuses and mothers.” The Times failed to mention any side effects but included the main talking point that as “many as 80% of pregnant women suffer morning sickness in the first trimester.”

Huge Customer Base

Over four million women give birth each year in the US, according to the CDC. The study reported that between 50% and 80% of pregnant women get morning sickness. Those numbers translate into between 2 and 3.2 million new Relgan customers in the US alone, year in and year out.

The women in the NEJM study took three 10mg tablets per day. The current price of Reglan at is $182 for 100 tablets. Each pregnant woman could buy 2 or 3 months of Reglan for the first trimester, plus the study notes that nausea and vomiting “can continue beyond the first trimester.” Two months of the drug at a cost of $364, times 2.5 million women, could potentially ring up $910 million each year.

Successful Campaign

It sounds like the study’s kick-off will definitely boost sales. “I think that women will be comforted by this,” Dr Keith Eddleman, director of obstetrics at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York, told Johnson in an AP article. “Most women are reluctant (to take anti-nausea medicine) just because of the stories they’ve heard and the perception that taking something in the first trimester can cause harm.”

“There are very few drugs approved for use in the first trimester of pregnancy,” Dr Jennifer Niebyl, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Iowa, told Time Magazine on June 10, 2009.

“But this study could lead to metoclopramide getting approved to treat morning sickness because this is good data with big numbers,” she said. “These findings may change practice and help people to be less hesitant to use the drug.”

Dr Laura Riley, a Massachusetts General Hospital obstetrician and spokeswoman for the Society for Maternal Fetal Medicine, told Johnson women are far more cautious than doctors about medication. “For some who are on the fence, it’ll allow them to take it.”

The chairman of obstetrics and gynecology at St John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, Dr James Moran, told the LA Times that he thinks the findings should be replicated but that he “wouldn’t hesitate to use Reglan at all.”

Infants Heavily Dosed

Reglan is also marketed off-label to nursing mothers to stimulate breast milk even though the medication guide warns women that the drug “can pass into breast milk and may harm your baby.”

Reglan is also used to treat GERD in newborns, especially premature babies. Any use with infants is off-label. Yet a study in the June 2006, Pediatrics journal titled, “Reported Medication Use in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Data From a Large National Data Set,” found Reglan was one of the 10 drugs reported most commonly for the NICU.

A Medline abstract for a paper in the January 2005, Movement Disorders Journal, reported the “first documented case of tardive dyskinesia in an infant,” developed at 2 months “after a 17-day treatment with metoclopramide for gastroesophageal reflux.”

The “Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Clinical Practice Guidelines,” in the October 2009, Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, warn that “Metoclopramide commonly produces adverse side effects in infants and children, particularly lethargy, irritability, gynecomastia, galacctorhea, and extrapyramidal reactions and has caused permanent tardive dyskinesia.”

An infant treated for GERD, born to a mother who took Reglan for morning sickness and to increase breast milk, would undergo triple exposure.

Women Need Warnings

“Women need to be aware of the potential risk Reglan poses to themselves and their children,” according to Roger Drake, the lead Reglan attorney at the California-based Baum, Hedlund, Aristei & Goldman law firm, in cases of persons who developed TD.

Concerns about tardive dyskinesia extend to children and infants, especially babies born prematurely, who may have been treated with Reglan to stimulate their digestive system, Drake reports.

He points out that no studies have been conducted to examine the risk of tardive dyskinesia in babies whose mothers take Reglan, even though the drug makers know that Reglan is used in such circumstances.

The adverse effects for babies are the same as for adults, he says, but infants are more at risk because there are no FDA approved dosing requirements established for the safe use of Reglan with children of any age, much less infants.

This article is part of the Reglan Litigation Update Series and is sponsored by the Baum, Hedlund, Aristei & Goldman law firm.

Evelyn Pringle is an investigative journalist focused on exposing corruption in government and corporate America. She won multiple awards for her investigative reporting from the International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology.

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21 Responses for “More Warnings Needed on Reglan Side Effects”

  1. K says:

    My daughter was the “infant” in the article, ” “first documented case of tardive dyskinesia in an infant,” She is now 7 years old and continues to have extreme muscle contractions and painful leg cramps due to the OD of the medicine. Her tongue and facial grimacing is still there peridocically, but mainly when she is really tired, concentrating hard on something, or agitated in one way or another.

    Just wanted to update her situation and let everyone know that this is real and a danger to anybody that has taken this medicine.

    Please let me know if there are any additional questions you might have.


  2. Evelyn Pringle says:

    I am so sorry to hear that. It’s heartbreaking!



  3. De Lyn says:

    Many hugs and prayers to you and your family, K. I am so sorry.

  4. Read an article with the full list of Reglan side effects. This was published in a peer-reviewed medical journal, Practical Gastroenterologys, but is easy to read. Heavy on the descriptions and light on jargon.

    We wrote it because we had heard so many reports of serious problems from parents that the FDA was unaware of. Please report all adverse effects!
    Available in text or PDF

  5. Bethe' says:

    My daughter also has GERD and I was so scared when she was on Reglan. She was suppost to be on it for about two months. But after two weeks I took her off because it made her voilently throw up (not the regular that we were used too). It is just so frustrating because many of us would do anything to help our children and it is sad that something like this can happen to them. I know that I am not the only one that wishes that there was some way to get rid of this problem and it is sad that some drug companies feed on our desperatoin.

  6. Evelyn Pringle says:

    It is sad because money from the pharmaceutical industry has infected every field of medicine.

  7. Juli says:

    I am soooo sorry about your daughter… that is truly heartbreaking! Researching vaccines and such is a given, but when we are medically prescribed something from a medical doctor we shouldn’t need to be leary! So frustrating…

    I was recently prescribed Reglan to increase milk production… my baby boy is 6 weeks now. I took it for 2 days and then my mother in law told me about the side effects. I have consulted multiple Dr’s and they all say it is safe. I am so desperate to want to Breastfeed… such a disappointment!

  8. Vicki says:

    All three of my children were on Reglan as babies for reflux. My oldest for a year. She is now 12. They have all been diagnosed with anxiety disorder and ADD. My oldest occasionally flaps her wrists. I think I just found the culprit and I am just sick! I don’t even know what to think right now! I am in shock!

  9. Evelyn Pringle says:

    That’s just terrible Vicki that a doctor would put all your infants on a drug never approved for children much less the tiniest of human beings.

  10. Amanda says:

    I was given about ten sample packets from my doctor to help with my nausea. I took all of them, then found out about the side effects. I took this drug for less than one week. Does anyone know if there are significant side effects for prenatal use when used for only a week? I’m 11 weeks and 2 days along if that helps at all. Thank you all for this helpful information.

  11. Marie says:

    I took reglan for my gastroparesis and morning sickness. My son was born with so many issues he didn’t come home for 7 weeks. I believe reglan is to blame. He is still developmentally delayed and will be disabled his whole life. I am a personal advertisement in warning every woman NOT to take reglan. You will survive being sick.

  12. Yolanda D says:

    I took reglan for over 5years for gastroparesis and was told by my Dr that I can continue to take it while I was pregnant and while I breastfeed my son. He too is develpmentally delayed, sufferes from leg pains, seizures etc.

  13. Charmeon Carneson says:

    Please can you help. My son (aged 26) was on Metaclopramide for just 3 days for nausea. He has not suffered for 5 weeks with massive panic, anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, shaking, lack of apetite and has been put on massive amounts of drugs by various doctors which are not helping.
    Lyrica (Pregabalin) 100mg a day (75mg in the night, 25mg in the day)
    Cirpalex (Escitlopram) 15mg
    Rivotril (Clonazepam) 0.25 – 0.5mg (1 – 2 times a day)

    Other Psych

    Akineton (3 times a day)

    Please can someone help. Not enough is known about this in South Africa and he feels as though he is losing his mind. Thoughts of suicide are constantly there. Please someone help.

  14. GAGirl says:

    I took Reglan in 2002 for GERD. I was on it for about 2 months until one day I started having anxiety, my stomach inside felt like it was in knotts. I felt like I was in a tunnel and could not see daylight. I also felt like I was losing my mind. I stopped taking Reglan and my doctor had given me Celexa for depression and she also added Librax to relax my stomach and help me sleep. This was the worst experience I had ever had. I am so sorry, I will be praying for you son. I lost 10 pounds in a week. I didn’t want to eat.

  15. Troy says:

    My daughter is 4 and took reglan as a newborn till 8 months. She has been a challenge and we have canceled our plans to have more. She aquifer a cold recently and during the infections had 5 seperate instances of uncontrollable body movements. “I cant stop wiggling”, was her explainnation. After researching I think that other problems stem from this drug. I don’t know what to do. Isn’t there some place to report these problems. Isn’t there someplace that knows how to treat them.

  16. Shelly says:

    I took reglan during pregnancy, my son is 8, he has a diagnosis of Autism. He has lots of sensory issues, delayed motor skills and tics.

  17. RC says:

    To all the people who took REGLAN

    I am a Christian, and God can help you through these problems. (1) Trust in God. (2) Go on a gluten free diet for the rest of your life to detoxify your system or at least drop the symptoms down 80% (3) Get plenty of exercise especially if your legs hurt. Leg pain/ spasms/ Parkinson’s symptoms will go down when you go on a gluten free diet because the immune system and body will re build the muscles and fat tissue. (4) Do not ever go off the gluten free diet because there is a boomerang effect meaning the symptoms will be worse and more painful if you add wheat, barley, rye, malt, and foods processed with wheat.
    This helped me so it will help you. Always always pray.

  18. Julie says:

    I took Reglan for 8 mths in 2006.. it very nearly ruined my life..

    Please visit this facebook group and share your experiences to let people know what Reglan Can Really Do..

    Anti Sickness Drug Metoclopramide Reglan Watch

  19. Faith says:

    I took Reglan during my pregnancy and my son is now four. When he was born his legs were extrmely stiff to where I had to do leg exercises on him to loosen his legs. Well a few months after birth he started having episodes normally when sleeping where he was crying but I could not get him fully alert you could see him eyes and head trying to locate the sound of m voice but he physically couldnt his body would be stiff his stomach would be rock hard, the episode would last a few mins & over time gradually lasted longer and longer up to 30mins or so. When the episodes were wearing off he would be limber on his right side of his body mouth twitched and alot of drooling. During his sleep he had an extreme amount of muscle movement & jerking. We had an EEG done and they just referneced the extreme muscle movement but did not see any seizure activity. Over the last few months he has complained with leg pains saying his legs & feet hurt & they are tired which means they are weak also when I ask him to pick something up he says he can’t because it is too heavy. Also he has started having the night sleep episodes again after about an year of not having any & also he has started having speech issues where he is getting stuck on his words. He knows what he wants to say but he is getting caught on getting the wotds out. He also copmplains of being cold and always runs a low bod temp no matter what temp we have or the clothing I put on him and I also thinks he has night sweats because during the night he is cold and clamy feeling while he sleeps. I am so worried about my son & am I very concerned that his issues are steming from my prolonged use of Reglan during my pregnancy because I took it orally and in my IV my entire pregnancy. Does any of this information sound familiar to you and what seps did you take to help your loved one or what occured from your situation. PLEASE HELP ME.

  20. Maria says:

    I took Raglan for about a week in my pregnancy at around 10 weeks for pregnancy sickness and my son who is now 4 is autistic. I can’t say this is due to the Raglan but feel there is enough evidence indicating to this. On the other hand keytones were found in my urine and there is some concerns that this could cause learning difficulties. It is best to do your own research and then make an informed decision.

  21. Mar Ga says:

    I am sitting in Shands Hospital now in FL. with a family member who I believe caused a massive amount of neurological issues because of REGLAN. He is 67 years old and it started with Nystagmus and snowballed into not wanting to eat and he lost alot of weight. He also speaks very slow and gets very confused esp when he is tired. Doctors are no aware of the dangers DO NOT TAKE THIS DRUG UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES!!!!!! This will zap the life out of you . This drug is a killer and should be outlawed. I pray for the children who receive this. Kids and elderly can not handle this stuff.

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